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Betting on baseball cards – Jul. 28, 2006

But that was until the card companies tried to get in on the fun. Steroids’ next victim: Baseball labor peace Top of page

Rookie cards of players like Mickey Mantle, who typified the golden era of baseball, are always in high demand among older collectors.

Then there are the cards from the 1970s and 1980s, which predate the card explosion, that some experts like Kelnhofer say could experience the next wave of popularity.

Currently underway in Anaheim, Calif., the four-day event will not only be a place for collectors to haggle over the value of their Lou Gehrigs and Jackie Robinsons, there’s bound to be a few collectors who reflect on how the hobby took a nosedive during the 1990s.

Cards dating back to the turn of the 20th century that were produced as promotional items for ice cream, candy and tobacco companies are some of the hottest cards on the market right now, according to collectors.

In fact, the fabled Honus Wagner card, which was produced by the Sweet Caporal Cigarette Company in 1909, is currently the most expensive card in existence, worth a cool $1.265 million. “It turned people off.”

Dealers like Stephen Dickler, who runs SD Trading, located just outside of Philadelphia, says moves such as this could work, but it’s too early to tell. But with Ripken’s achievement faded from the minds of collectors, that same ungraded card would only fetch $40 today.

The hobby looks like it has rebounded from the doldrums of the 90s, but is there money to be made in collecting Aarons and Ruths?

Even though the hobby struggles to bring young collectors into the fold, there have been some promising signs for baseball card collecting as of late.

Andy Madec, a dealer based in Camarillo, Calif., remembers that time vividly.

What’s hot now

But there is a lot of fickleness too, says Scott Kelnhofer, editor of Card Trade, the monthly trade journal for the sports collection industry

“It just got too out of hand,” says Madec, who runs his own firm, Andy Madec Sports Cards Inc.

Best baseball books

Even in good times, collecting is a tough hobby. (See the most valuable cards.)

“It’s a tricky thing,” Kelnhofer says. “Investors just need to hear it’s safe to go back in.”

And in June, Major League Baseball and the players’ association teamed up with card manufacturers Topps and Upper Deck to launch the first ever National Baseball Card Day, giving out 500,000 card packs at hobby shops and retailers nationwide in an effort to promote the hobby.

NEW YORK (CNNMoney.com) — Once a year, baseball-card collectors gather for the granddaddy of all sports collectible conventions – the National Sports Collectors Convention.

The market has been bouncing back, particularly vintage cards, those that date backs 25 years or more. Flooding the market with multiple versions of new cards, the manufacturers drove down card values.. “This market has incredible potential,” he says. “The vintage market is still the place for people to get involved purely from an investment standpoint,” says Kelnhofer. “There’s always buyers and sellers for that material.”

Earlier this year, the Major League Baseball Players Association lent their assistance, cutting in half the number of licenses it offers to card manufacturers in an effort to rid the glut of new cards on the market.

Hope for future?

Up until the late 1980s and early 1990s, collectors were living in a golden age, says Madec – returns of 20 percent in just six months were not unheard of. “There’s no guarantee it will happen,” says Dickler. “The questions are still out there as to whether it will have an impact or not.”

Most valuable cards

But many in the industry, like Madec, who is currently attending the National Sports Collectors Convention, is certain that is there is a future for this enduring hobby, despite its setbacks in recent years. In 1996, the year after Ripken broke Lou Gehrig’s record for number of most consecutive games played, a card in mint condition that had not been professionally appraised would have sold for $90. It boils down to a couple of simple principles — how many there are and what kind of condition the card is in.

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Take Cal Ripken Jr.’s 1982 Topps rookie card

College football

“Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.

^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).

^ “Grantland Rice”. (1991). Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. November 27, 2011. The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ Edmonston Jr., George. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival.[86] The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.[63]

Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”

^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.

^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). of C. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.[16]Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)

Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.

Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.

On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.

A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009

Mid West

Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. A (October 1913 – March 1914). The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 20

^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”. “College Football in Kansas”. sporting event.[76]

National Collegiate Athletic Association

Football

FBS

FCS

See also

Golf

Men

Women

1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan

Golf

Men

Women

The 1905 Utah football team

Wrestling

Championship

The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.

1.6.2 Coaches of the era

1.6.2.1 Glenn “Pop” Warner

1.6.2.2 Knute Rockne

2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions

3 Organization

4 Coaching

5 National championships

6 Team maps

7 Playoff games

8 Bowl games

8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. Bill Traughber. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[93] Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.

The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:

Map of NJCAA

No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

Division III

Football

Championship

At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. 2007. The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.

The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.

There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. Accessed March 11, 2015

^ Will Perry (1974). 2007. 63: 742-750.

^ “History”. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. Retrieved 2011-10-06.

^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2011/11/26/football-is-corrupting-americas-universities-it-needs-to-go/

^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/sep/1/time-for-universities-to-punt-football/?page=all

^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.

^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014, http://chronicle.com/blogs/data/2014/05/16/coaches-not-presidents-top-public-college-pay-list/

^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/16/sports/errors-in-inquiry-on-rape-allegations-against-fsu-jameis-winston.html

^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013, http://www.cbssports.com/general/writer/gregg-doyel/23838595/its-time-pay-college-football-players—-changing-times-money-say-so

^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007, http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?id=2733624

^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/10/the-shame-of-college-sports/308643/

^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.

Field hockey

Championship

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first.[63] As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. Retrieved February 9, 2015.

^ Melvin I. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. Journals.humankinetics.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 18

^ John S. Stanford: Home of Champions. p. 21. It appears here in its original form:

In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.

Official rules and notable rule distinctions

See also: American football rules

Columbia University was the third school to field a team. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.[134]

The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. (1916-10-15). Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. College Football Data Warehouse. Pitt won 21-13.[109] On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.[146]

Tennis

Men

Women

Organization

In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.[115][116] In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. National Collegiate Athletic Association. Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.

The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.

A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.

^ Edwin Pope. PMID 4903389.

^ Watterson, John (2001). In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.[103] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909[7] and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.[104]

Map of Division I (AA) FCS

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

Rowing

Women

Notable intersectional games

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. Associated Press. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.[87]

The 1893 Stanford American football team

College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.[154][155] According to William E. Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. open access publication - free to read

^ DeLassus, David. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.

^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.

^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.[62]

Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Harvard University Sports Information Office. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ Meacham, Scott (2006). Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).

and championships

Led by coach Fielding H. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.[64][65] Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. D. “Sport Slants”. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.[121][126]

Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition.[87] The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.[131][135]

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.[116]

Contents

Soccer

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Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game.[87] California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895″. How to Scout Football. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.

January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.

In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.[87][88][89]

The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.

In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. Princeton Alumni Weekly. (2007). Minnesota won 2 to 0.[36] It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.

games 1930-2010[144]

Year

# of games

1930

1

1940

5

1950

8

1960

8

1970

8

1980

15

1990

19

2000

25

2010

35

2014

College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game

Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.

In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,”[37] broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.

College Football Playoff

Main article: College Football Playoff

The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. 11 (3): 33.

^ Goldsmith, A. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ “1800s”. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.[133]

Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. Navy won 24-0.

Awards

Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. September 14, 1923.

^ cf. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. 16 Stanford”. Bernstein. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.[21]Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic.[59][60] Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. (1995). From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.[144][145] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,[3][10][11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.[11] This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football.[12][13] In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.

On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. Atlanta Constitution. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.[128][129] The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932.[128] The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South.[130] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.[128][131]

A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force

Heisman Trophy

Maxwell Award

Walter Camp Award

Outland Trophy

Associated Press Player of the Year

Johnny Rodgers Award

Fred Biletnikoff Award

Lou Groza Award

Lombardi Award

NCAA Division I Football Championship[151] – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.

NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.

Beach volleyball

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Single-division sports

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Volleyball

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Women

College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection. April 27, 1924.

^ Dan McGugin (1907). 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.

^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. ISBN 978-0873970556.

^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. p. D5.

^ a b “College Bowl Games”. It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. The Dallas Morning News. Nixon (1898-12-16). During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.[35]

Softball

Championship

CWS

It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.[48] On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.[82] Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback.[83] The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.

The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. San Francisco Chronicle. The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. Lincoln Evening Journal. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.[56] The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.

Rowing

Women

Walter Camp: Father of American football

East

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. “Changing seasons: Y. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. Joseph M. This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.. That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.

A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).

By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.[16]

The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”[51][52]Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”[53]

The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. Accessed 29 January 2007.

^ a b Parke H. dartmo.com. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.[16]

Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.[58] The Sooners did not manage a single first down. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. But no record has been found of the score of this contest. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. National Collegiate Athletic Association. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.[3]

NCAA

Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48

^ Vancil (2000), pp 56

^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217

^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. Professional Football Researchers Association. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).

The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.

College Football Playoff

College athletics in the United States

College Football Hall of Fame

College football on radio

College football on television

Helmet stickers

Basketball

Men

Women

The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. Davis. Pennsylvania”. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. Washington and Lee won 4-2.[38] Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out.[39] Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911).[87] However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football.[87] With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small.[87] The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes.[142] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. New York Times. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.

Rugby Football in England and Canada

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901.[54] A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. Kicked tries count as one point. ACTIVE.com. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made.[94] However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. p. 12.

^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148

^ Vancil (2000), pp 30

^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30

^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. Tennessee Historical Society. Ralph Turtinen, ed. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.[138][139][140]

1.3 Scoring table

1.4 Expansion

1.4.1 East

1.4.2 Mid West

1.4.3 South

1.4.4 Southwest

1.4.5 Pacific Coast

1.4.6 Mountain West

Tennis

Men

Women

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. “College Football”. The Anatomy of a Game. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Professional Football Researchers Association. August 22, 1900. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.

From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

1 History

1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.2 American college football

1.2.1 Early games

1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)

1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football

Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.

In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. NCAA.org. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). 2007. 111, Issue 8

Brian M. (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. p. 53.

^ Becky Riddle, “Stoll Field”, ExploreKYHistory, accessed February 4, 2015, http://explorekyhistory.ky.gov/items/show/153.

^ Jim L. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.[32][33] The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.[34]

Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. p. 116.

^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.

^ George Allen. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. Football Immortals. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports.[112] Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. Retrieved 2007-08-23.

^ “Knute Rockne”. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries.[101] Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898[90]

After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

Coaches of the era

Glenn “Pop” Warner

November 1890 was an active time in the sport. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. Tar Heel Times. Mcgill.ca. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.

Events listed in italics have been discontinued.

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. Augusta Computer Services. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.

The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.

Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. Journal of Sport History. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts.[14] The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.[15]

College football outside the United States

See also: List of college football games played outside the United States

1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. p. 95.

^ Ray Dozier. The Boston Globe.

^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889″ (PDF). “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.

^ Triumph Books. open access publication - free to read

^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.

Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain[1] Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. Sports Publishing LLC. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. open access publication - free to read

^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). nfl.com. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.[44]

Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.[3]

On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South.[40] The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.[41]

Gymnastics

Men

Women

The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.

Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee.[20] The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. 18, No. Frank Suffel and Henry H. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988

^ Vancil (2000), pp 17

^ Vancil (2000) pp 22

^ “NFL History 1911-1920″. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.

The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. TheGame.org. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. Chicago Tribune. The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history.[118] That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.[119]

On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. NCAA.com. Retrieved October 20, 2011.

^ John C. October 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.[145][147] However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. open access publication - free to read

^ Gardner (1996)

^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.[3][6][7][8] The game was played at a Rutgers field. There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.[159][160][161][162]

Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.

If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. Retrieved 2007-06-04.

^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18

^ Bennett (1976), pp 20

^ Lewis, Guy M. Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. College Football Data Warehouse. The high school won 24 to 0.[59]

Institutions

Athletic directors

Baseball

Championship

CWS

As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.

This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. McGill football game

Map of CCCAA

At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.[105]

1904 Vanderbilt team in action.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy

Don Hutson in 1940.

Field hockey

Championship

Heisman shift

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. “Why California Likes Rugby”. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. Retrieved October 11, 2009.

“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922″.

^ “Alabama vs. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory.[61] In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.

American football historian Parke H. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 39

^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45

^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172

^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171

^ Bennett (1976) pp 56

^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. Football’s Greatest Coaches. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.

Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.[91]

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. (1969). Prescott Evening Courier.

^ “Ball Under The Jersey”. Baker beat Kansas 22-9.[19] On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).

Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. December 27, 1892. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.[30]

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ “The History of the NCAA”. Retrieved 2008-10-06.

^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21

^ “ESPN.com: Top N. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt.[45] The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ DeLassus, David. Kansas Historical Quarterly. Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.[79][80][81] In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.[77]

9 Controversy

10 College football outside the United States

11 Awards

12 See also

13 References

14 Further notes

15 External links

15.1 Statistics

15.2 Rules

15.3 Maps

Soccer

Men

Women

Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:

As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ “College Football Games”. Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association. The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).

“NCAA football” redirects here. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.[125] The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. Atlanta Constitution. Retrieved 13 October 2011.

^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”. University of Illinois. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.

The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. Sumner (1990). Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play.[121] The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.

Further notes

“The Invention Of Football”. McGill

The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. It also became increasingly violent. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 24

^ “Marching Band History”. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.[55]

In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.[106] Chicago won 42-6. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.[61] USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[100] Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).

Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

Wrestling

Championship

Violence, formation of NCAA

On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. p. 15.

^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. Each school played its own variety of football. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895

^ Forgard, Benjamin. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. April 15, 2011. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.

1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. Stanford: Home of Champions. 1895. The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).

It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. Retrieved March 7, 2015.

^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. December 30, 1894. (Audio help)

More spoken articles

Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).

The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. College Football Data Warehouse. WorldCat.org. The Kingsport Times. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.

On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. 2006. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. John Roberts.

^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. Los Angeles Times. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.[17]

On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ a b “The History of Football”. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. p. 186. What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. CUBuffs.com reprint of Silver & Gold article. The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. November 27, 1941.

^ “Homecoming 2015″. Journal of Sport History, Vol. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. The Walter Camp Foundation. August 17, 1999.

^ Alexander M. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.”[120] Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. November 7, 1886. American athletes of the century”. “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). Reading Eagle. Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. 201-209.

^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically.[143] Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out.[26] The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.[27]

On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game.[66][67] Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager.[68] Chicago won 24 to 4.[69] Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.[70]

– John C. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. November 22, 1893.

^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. p. 70.

^ Gary Migdol. ESPN.com. The Research Quarterly. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game’”. August 2008. 2001. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat

Soccer

Men

Women

Meanwhile, John H. In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)

Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.[147]

The first USC football squad (1888). The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.

Rise of the South

Bronko Nagurski Trophy

Dick Butkus Award

Jim Thorpe Award

Doak Walker Award

Campbell Trophy

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award

Home Depot Award

Ray Guy Award

John Mackey Award

The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. Los Angeles Herald. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

^ “Parke H. In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. 2007-02-14. Smith. Retrieved 2008-01-16.

^ A compilation of seven sources:

“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. 2007. The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons.[92] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.[102] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.

Gymnastics

Men

Women

Men-DII

Women-DII

Knute Rockne

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.

^ a b Libby, Brian. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.

Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.[136][137]

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. ESPN. The New York Times. Hickok Sports. The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910″. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. 2007. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.[38]

Playoff games

The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. Mountain West

v

t

e

The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. Nixon, also the school’s second captain. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”[113]Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

Skiing

Championships

Bowling

Women

Growth of bowl games

See also: Bowl game

Growth of bowl

References

Ice hockey

Men

Women

Basketball

Men

Women

At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). Lawrence Journal-World. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.

College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.

The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. Sports Reference.com. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured.[71][72][73][74][75] On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006). Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894″ (PDF). Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/sports/federal-judge-rules-against-ncaa-in-obannon-case.html

Trampoline

Championship

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.

On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.[42] Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ McCann, Michael C. NFL Enterprises LLC. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. NCAA. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.”[31] Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. 2006. This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton.[24] Princeton won both games 6 to 0. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897.[50] He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.

Division I FBS National Championship Games

Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff

Water polo

Men

Women

American college football

Ice hockey

Men

Women

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.[22]

In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. April 16, 2007. Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.

Colorado’s First football team in 1890.

Rowing

Women

The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie.[29] The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.[95]

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Map of NCAA Division II

Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. MSN Encarta. February 19, 1911. If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions.[87] The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time.

^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905

^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905

^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. FOX Sports on MSN. Retrieved 2008-04-06.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22

^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29

^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124

^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

Controversy

Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University.[121] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history.[122][123] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927.[124] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. College Football Historical Society. The Strode Publishers. p. 3.

^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”[110]

^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). Outing. Retrieved 2007-03-21. College Football Encyclopedia. Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns.[148] The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game.[149] The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.

Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:[150]If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. 40: 717-724. Boston Daily Globe. p. 179.

^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Retrieved 2009-02-18.

^ Nelson (1994), pp 48

^ “Big Ten History”. Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.

The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. p. 4.

^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. Rutgers Through The Years. However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. p. 15 – via Google books. pp. 285-311. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.[141]

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.[23] This occurred on November 6, 1875.

Cross Country

Men

Women

Map of Division I (A) FBS

Golf

Men

Women

NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.

CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.

Team maps

and championships

The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young.[77][78][79] Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. University of Virginia Football Vault. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Ours, Robert M. open access publication - free to read

^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. p. 52. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

^ John Majors. Deseret News. Athens, Georgia: E. “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). British Columbia Rugby Union. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.

On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.[43]

Volleyball

Men

Women

After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.[3]

Wrestling

Championship

Coaching

Main article: Head coach § College football

National championships

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.

College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.

Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).

Boxing

Championship

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_football&oldid=738179815″

Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910,[98] which still sets rules governing the sport.[98][99]

The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. OSU Alumni Association. NFL.com. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.

Bowl Championship Series

Main article: Bowl Championship Series

See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship

Map of NCAA Division III

Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. heisman.com. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). Retrieved April 6, 2011.

^ “The History of Homecoming”. “The Birth of OSU Football”. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. 16: 583. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.[28]

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

Harvard-McGill (1874)

Main article: 1874 Harvard vs. USC Trojans. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.

^ Davis, Parke H. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)

College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. 2007. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. Nelson. Heisman Trophy. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. pp. 11-13. The game was won by Tufts 1-0[9] Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.[2]

Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.[6][7][16] As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.[16]

South

Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history.[114] Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “Series of rules changes approved”. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. p. 14.

^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.”[117] Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. May 8, 1900. It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. Several major rivalries date from this time period.

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. December 18, 1930. 2012-05-14. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.

[...]

An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.[25]

Fencing

Championships

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Rifle

Championship

The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.”[156] Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them.[157] Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law.[158] Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. 2.

^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). Associated Press. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.

A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2011.

^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. Rutgers University. Journal of Sport History. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. 2007. Lawrence Daily Journal. p. 5.

^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.

^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.

^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.

^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012

^ a b “Timeline”. The History of Sports. The inaugural champion was Ohio State University.[152] The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.

1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)

1.8.1 Growth of bowl games

1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series

1.8.3 College Football Playoff

Football

Championship

1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.[127]

University of Wisconsin football team, 1903

Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. p. 64.

^ “Spotlight Athletics:”. Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.

Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game.[107] The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.[108] It ended in a 3-3 tie. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.[3]

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. The number grew to eleven in 1976. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.

Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. p. 128.

^ Langum, David J. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. “N.C.A.A. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.[132]

Harvard vs. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16

^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). Retrieved 2016-01-24.

Softball

Championship/WCWS

In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union.[87] At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide.[87] Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. This college rule was added in 1988. It was his last game as Clemson head coach.[57]

Scoring table

Historical college football scoring[18]

Era

Touchdown

Field goal

Conversion (kick)

Conversion (touchdown)

Safety

Conversion safety

Defensive conversion

1883

2

5

4

-

1

-

-

1883-1897

4

5

2

-

2

-

-

1898-1903

5

5

1

-

2

-

-

1904-1908

5

4

1

-

2

-

-

1909-1911

5

3

1

-

2

-

-

1912-1957

6

3

1

-

2

-

-

1958-1987

6

3

1

2

2

1

-

1988-present

6

3

1

2

2

1

2

Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.

Expansion

Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game

History

See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football

Basketball

Men

Women

Pacific Coast

Early games

Main article: 1869 college football season

This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.[153] However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. p. 3. Retrieved March 24, 2015.

^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.

^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901″.

^ Mark F. open access publication - free to read

^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892″. The University of Alabama. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.

Modern college football (since 1958)

[...]

Field hockey

Championship

Map of NAIA

One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”[111]Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members.[46] The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.[47]

In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University,[84] and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900.[85] Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. Saperecom. Professional Football Researchers Association. Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. Weyand (1962). As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.

Cross Country

Men

Women

Homosexuality in American football

List of defunct college football teams

List of defunct college football conferences

List of historically significant college football games

List of sports attendance figures

Sports injury

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Volleyball

Women

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[3][4] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “FBS College Football History”. Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).

American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.[16]

Tennis

Men

Women

Southwest

Softball

Championship/WCWS

Awards

Hall of Champions

Conferences

Division I sports

Listen to this article (info/dl)

Division II

Ice hockey

Men

NCAA football official site

Composite television schedule of NCAA football games

Statistics

College Football at d1sportsnet.com

College Football at Sports-Reference.com

Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database

College Football Data Warehouse

Gridiron History

Rules

NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations

Maps

Google Map of Division II Football Programs

Map of FBS Teams and Conferences

1906 St. 256 players are selected annually. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period’; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association’; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.[5]

Cross Country

Men

Women

1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA

1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

1.6.1 Rise of the South

1.6.1.1 Heisman shift

1.6.1.2 Notable intersectional games

Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ “The History of Walter Camp”. 17 (1).

^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).

Bowl games

Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games

The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. Football, the American intercollegiate game. Stone. Retrieved April 12, 2011.

^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying).[147] Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.[96] The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”.[97] In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. “Southeastern Conference”. Web.ebscohost.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ Smith, R.A. p. 5. It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal.[49] Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. pp. A3.

^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). p. 232.

^ David M. MSNBC. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. p. 8. NFL.com. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.

November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. p. 4.

^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.

The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present

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UBS Writes Down Positions, Predicts an Overall Loss in Third Quarter, and Reorganizes Management

Valuations therefore mostly

use models with observable inputs, where possible, and level 3 valuation

models otherwise.

Short bio Marco Suter

UBS has only limited exposure to leveraged lending with commitments of

about USD 13 billion.

Joseph Scoby’s first task as a member of the Group Executive Board will

be to review and refine our risk processes. He also

serves as Global Chief Operating Officer for the Investment Bank.

. Prior to that, he held various

management positions in SBC’s investment banking operations, first as

the Continental European Head of Merchant Banking and later as the Chief

Credit Officer for EMEA. UBS’s financial businesses employ more than 80,000 people

around the world. Mr. It has offices

in 50 countries, with about 39% of its employees working in the

Americas, 34% in Switzerland, 16% in the rest of Europe and 11% in Asia

Pacific. Ferri began his legal career practicing corporate law at Seward &

Kissel, from 1991 to 1995. Management action has been taken to

make certain these positions are appropriately valued and risk managed.

Third quarter results

Robert Wolf is the Chairman & CEO of UBS for the Americas. Gall office and later broadened his experience

with assignments in Nyon, New York, Basel, Zurich and London.

Joseph Scoby is Global Head of Alternative and Quantitative Investments

(A&Q), an alternatives platform within Global Asset Management with

approximately USD 60 billion in assets under management and 360

employees around the globe. Wolf graduated from the Wharton School at the University of

Pennsylvania with a B.S. Between 1999 and 2005 he was Group Chief Credit Officer and

a member of the Group Managing Board. He is a Swiss citizen. From 1996 until the merger of SBC

and Union Bank of Switzerland in 1998 he served as regional manager of

the Zurich-Eastern Switzerland-Ticino area for the corporate and

commercial banking activities of SBC. These positions consist overwhelmingly of

AAA-rated tranches, 80% with a weighted average life of less than three

years. I have also made

appropriate senior management changes, and will accelerate

already-planned changes to the firm. As an integrated firm, UBS

creates added value for clients by drawing on the combined resources and

expertise of all its businesses.

Despite the unsatisfactory results for the third quarter, we still

expect to end the year with a good level of profits and in a strong

capital position. There is also a smaller position of below USD 4 billion net

exposure to sub prime securities through warehouse lines and retained

CDOs. From

1995-1999 he was the Joint Head of US Equities at the Investment Bank,

with responsibility for approximately 650 employees. Marcel

Rohner, Group CEO, will reorganize senior management, take over as

Chairman and CEO of the Investment Bank, and accelerate structural

improvements to the firm.

All other UBS businesses remain strong. These securities are either AAA-rated or High Grade, and have a

short weighted average life.

With effect from today:

Our first quarterly loss in nine years is an unsatisfactory result,

especially after such a strong first half. These have also been written down appropriately,

leading to a limited loss on these positions in third quarter.

UBS has no material exposure to conduits.

Marcel Rohner, Group CEO, said: “UBS operates on the principle that

management is accountable to shareholders. Scoby has a BS from Wharton School and an MA from the

University of Pennsylvania, both earned with honors in a total of four

years of study and awarded in 1987.

Commenting on these decisions, Marcel Rohner, Group CEO said:

ZURICH & BASEL, Switzerland–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Regulatory News:

Where possible, holdings are marked at the quoted market price. Wolf is on the Undergraduate

Executive Board of the Wharton School and sits on the Athletics Board of

Overseers at the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Scoby’s

experience includes portfolio management in commodity options,

convertible arbitrage, equities, equity derivatives, corporate bonds,

merger arbitrage, quantitative equity, real estate finance, and

fundamental based equity long short funds. He is a member of the

Global Asset Management Executive Committee and a member of the UBS

Group Managing Board.

While the third quarter loss means that pre tax results for the full

year 2007 will most probably be below those for 2006, total earnings

should still be at a high level and UBS will finish the year in a strong

capital position.

Mr. Ferri is also responsible for managing the product

pipeline, business development, sales and client services.

Short bio William Ferri

Following a write down of positions in fixed income, rates and

currencies (FIRC), mainly related to deteriorating conditions in the US

sub prime residential mortgage market, UBS is likely to record an

overall Group pre-tax loss of between CHF 600 million and CHF 800

million for third quarter, ended September 30. (since 1995) where positions held included Corporate Vice President

and Associate General Counsel to the Global Equities Division, and

Deputy Director of Compliance.

Working closely with other members of the management team and the key

investment professionals within A&Q, Mr. Wolf is a member of the UBS Group Managing Board and the Investment

Bank Management Committee. UBS remains a formidable

competitor in financial services and is well positioned to deliver

long-term profitable growth.”

Biographies

UBS is the leading global wealth manager, a top tier investment banking

and securities firm, and one of the largest global asset managers. Ferri joined the UBS Investment Bank in 1998

as Director of Equity Compliance. Pre-tax profits for the

first nine months of 2007 will be in the order of CHF 10 billion. Group

CFO Clive Standish to retire

– Marco Suter, Executive Vice Chairman, UBS, to become Group CFO

– Walter Stuerzinger, Group Chief Risk Officer (GCRO), to become

Chief Operating Officer (COO), Corporate Center

– Joseph Scoby, Global Head of Alternative & Quantitative

Investments, UBS Global Asset Management, to become GCRO, UBS

Investment Bank changes:

– Robert Wolf, COO, Investment Bank, additionally appointed

President, Investment Bank

– Money Markets, Currencies and Commodities (MCC) to be integrated

into Fixed Income

– Initiation of cost reductions in Investment Bank

In addition, UBS has taken significant write downs on positions in Super

Senior AAA-rated tranches of CDOs, based on level 3 valuation models.

Mr. I have therefore taken

decisive action to be as transparent as possible. All other businesses in the Investment Bank, and our

Global Wealth Management & Business Banking and Global Asset Management

businesses, continue to record good results. He has also been the head of O’Connor,

a specialist hedge fund provider within A&Q, with assets under

management of approximately USD 7.5 billion. Huw Jenkins, Chairman and CEO of the Investment Bank,

will step down from his position and become a senior advisor to Marcel

Rohner.

Mr. We have thousands of

talented people throughout the organisation who, by working together,

will deliver further value to our clients and additional growth to our

shareholders.”

Marco Suter, Executive Vice Chairman, UBS, will leave the Board of

Directors to become Group Chief Financial Officer, and join the Group

Executive Board. Suter has been with UBS and its predecessor, Swiss Bank Corporation,

since 1974. A

glossary, containing definitions of some of the less-well known terms

used in today’s release, is also available at www.ubs.com/media.

UBS is one of the world’s leading financial

firms, serving a discerning international client base. In fact, conditions remained

turbulent, so we will make an overall pre-tax loss at Group level for

the quarter.

Mr. Prior to his appointment to his current position in 2004, Robert

Wolf was Global Head of Fixed Income for over three years.

In addition to his roles at UBS, Mr. We have a strong balance sheet, a strong franchise, and

leading positions in all businesses in all regions. Within the

Investment Bank, IBD has gained market share, the capital markets

business remains strong, and equities revenues –

though a bit weaker this quarter than a year ago, and in the context of

extremely difficult conditions – remain

healthy.

Marcel Rohner, in addition to his duties as Group CEO, will for the

foreseeable future take over the role of Chairman and CEO of the

Investment Bank. Wolf also participated as a panel member at

the inaugural Wall Street forum for HIV and AIDS alongside former UN

Secretary Kofi Annan.

“I am confident that, with these changes and

by properly absorbing the lessons of this quarter, we will become a

stronger bank. He is married with two children.

Marco Suter was elected to the Board of Directors at the Annual General

Meeting of UBS in April 2005 and thereafter appointed as Executive Vice

Chairman.

“On August 14, I said that if turbulent

conditions prevail throughout the quarter, we will probably see a very

weak trading result in the Investment Bank, offset by predictable

earnings from wealth and asset management. Its shares are listed on the SWX Swiss Stock Exchange,

the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE).

As a result of the planned changes within the Investment Bank, overall

staff numbers will fall by about 1,500 by the end of this year.

Robert Wolf, Chairman and CEO, UBS Group Americas and Chief Operating

Officer Investment Bank, will additionally become President, Investment

Bank. Global Asset Management continues to perform well. Overall, FIRC

will record negative revenues in the order of CHF 4 billion.

Walter Stuerzinger, Group Chief Risk Officer (GCRO), will become Chief

Operating Officer, Corporate Center, and hand over the GCRO position to

Joseph Scoby, currently Global Head of Alternative and Quantitative

Investments (A&Q), Global Asset Management. These events have led to the

management changes announced today. He received a BS form Cornell University in

1988 and a JD from the University of North Carolina in 1991.

UBS

 

In third quarter 2007, expected pre-tax loss for the Group between

CHF 600 million and CHF 800 million, due mainly to write downs and

losses in the FIRC business within the Investment Bank

For the first nine months of 2007 pre-tax profits for the Group in

the order of CHF 10 billion, and expect to end the year with good

level of profits and a strong capital position

All other businesses in the Investment Bank, as well as the Global

Wealth Management & Business Banking and Global Asset Management

business groups, performing very well

Management changes:

– Investment Bank Chairman and CEO Huw Jenkins to step down. During 2008 we will continue

to focus on improving cost and balance sheet efficiency.”

A video containing an interview with Group CEO Marcel Rohner is

available at www.ubs.com/media as

well as at www.cantos.com. This led to substantial valuation losses, including in

securities with high credit ratings. Joseph Scoby’s record both as

head of A&Q and previously as Joint Head of US Equities within the

Investment Bank makes him an ideal successor to Walter Stuerzinger. He is on the Executive

Leadership Council for the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation, on the

Board of Trustees for the Children’s Aid Society, the Board of Directors

for the partnership for NYC and on the Board of Directors for the

National Sports Museum. William Ferri, currently

Head of Business Development and Logistics for A&Q, will be appointed as

the new Global Head of Alternative and Quantitative Investments.

These write downs are mainly of (a) legacy positions of the now closed

Dillon Read Capital Management subsidiary and (b) positions entered into

as part of the Investment Bank’s mortgage

backed securities business.

Mr. He originally worked for PaineWebber

Inc. Mr. His long experience and knowledge of UBS, including as

Group Chief Credit Officer, make him extremely well qualified for this

position. Mr. Clive Standish, Group Chief Financial Officer, will retire.

Previously, he was General Counsel for the O’Connor

hedge fund and fund of fund businesses, and was on the O’Connor team at

its relaunch in 2000. The one firm approach requires a

successful and profitable Investment Bank.

Within the Investment Bank, Money Markets, Currencies and Commodities

(MCC) will be integrated into Fixed Income under the leadership of Andre

Esteves.

The marks take a cautious view of future developments in the US mortgage

market and UBS is content to hold these securities at this level of

valuation.

Results for third quarter 2007 will be announced on October 30, 2007 as

planned.

William Ferri is the Head of Business Development and Logistics for

Alternative and Quantitative Investments (A&Q), an alternatives platform

within Global Asset Management.

Continued strong performance in other business areas

Short bio Robert Wolf

There are other, smaller, losses in equities proprietary trading within

an overall satisfactory result.

In the third quarter, UBS will recognize substantial losses in FIRC

within the Investment Bank, mainly on its holdings of securities related

to the US sub prime residential mortgage (RMBS) market. Its business,

global in scale, is focused on growth. Suter was born on 7 May 1958. Scoby began his career with O’Connor and

Associates in 1987 and became a Managing Director in 1993. Suter first joined the bank in 1974 as an

apprentice at SBC’s St. He also chairs

the Swiss Institute for International Studies (SIAF).

UBS is present in all major financial centers worldwide. In Global Wealth Management &

Business Banking, all geographical regions continue to attract net new

money. He served as Global Head of Fixed Income from

2002 – 2004, having joined the firm in 1994

after spending approximately 10 years at Salomon Brothers.

Mr. However, the deterioration in the US sub prime

residential mortgage backed securities market, especially in August, was

more sudden and more severe than in recent history, and markets became

illiquid. Mr. In

Switzerland, UBS is the market leader in retail and commercial banking.

Commenting on these changes Marcel Rohner said:

Management changes

The remaining relevant positions in direct sub prime RMBS have a current

net value of USD 19 billion. in Economics. Mr. He also has extensive

experience in solving institutional and corporate client problems using

derivatives. Following these actions, UBS is in

a strong position to continue to grow its client businesses.

Short bio Joseph Scoby

When most mortgage backed securities positions were set up there were

offsetting positions in place, designed to mitigate risk in normal

market conditions. Ferri has overall

responsibility for managing the logistics platform and business

development effort of the group, ensuring the investment team’s

requirements are met while maintaining the appropriate control

infrastructure. For most

sub prime holdings, this is not possible. A&Q currently has over USD

60 billion in assets under management

ISI Unveils Hooters-Themed Sports Betting Kiosks in Time for Super Bowl Sunday

ABOUT ISI, LTD.

ISI, LTD. (AWIM). AWIG is a recently formed subsidiary with the goal of

becoming a market leader in operating smaller hotel/casino properties.

ISI co-developed the iSports Stand with AWI Manufacturing, Inc. Hooters Casino Hotel is a collaborative effort between four

of the original six founding fathers of the Hooters Restaurant chain,

155 East Tropicana, LLC (the former owner and operator of the Hotel San

Remo), and a Hooters franchise group from Florida. “We designed the kiosks to

attract curious guests to take a look and try this new technology.

(ISI) officials announced today their sports gaming kiosks (the iSports

Stand) are now on the gaming floor of Hooters Casino Hotel, offering

bettors a faster, more convenient method to place sports bets.

“We believe once legal bettors experience the

additional features like receiving special offers from our advertisers,

checking weather during events, obtaining advice from a professional

sports handicapper, booking show tickets or making golf reservations,

they will prefer the kiosks,” he said.

Stearns compares the machines to using the ATM at a bank instead of

dealing with the teller.

“Hooters is a unique, world-famous brand with

a very loyal following,” said Bill Stearns,

president of ISI.

Acting as a stand-alone sports book, the iSports Stand provides the same

services as an in-casino sports book. For more information, please visit www.isisports.com.

Home base to Miss Hooters International 2006, Michelle Nunes, and

recipient of AAA’s 2007 Three Diamond Award,

the world’s first Hooters Casino Hotel

features 696 Hooterized Florida-casual rooms and suites fully equipped

with the latest amenities. (“AWIG”). is a privately owned company, which distributes self-service

wagering terminals (the iSports Stand) in association with American

Wagering, Inc. In addition to self-service sports wagering, the iSports

Stand provides important sporting event information, a variety of

self-service concierge services and third-party advertising via ISI, LTD.’s

proprietary software (The AdCaster). It’s

very simple to place bets, and the kiosk can be open practically 24

hours.”

ABOUT AMERICAN WAGERING, INC.

American Wagering, Inc. The iSports Stands are expected to be fully

operational in time for the busiest sports book day of the year –

Super Bowl Sunday.

LAS VEGAS–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Leroy’s Race and Sports Book and ISI, Ltd. The 30,000-square-foot

“Hooters”-themed casino floor offers approximately 670 state-of-the-art

slot and video poker machines and 33 table games –

including the Hooters Girl Party Pit – for

24-hour fun. This is the

first time companies and products outside of the casino can reach guests

on the gaming floor.

. The hotel is conveniently located one block

from the famous Las Vegas Strip and across from the MGM Grand. ISI, LTD. Also unique is the ability for

local and national businesses to advertise on the kiosk’s

video screen, side panels and through on-screen banner ads. While

guests can expect to see the more than 200 world-famous Hooters Girls

throughout the property, an exciting mix of dining, entertainment and

nightlife is also featured, from nine fine-to-funky restaurants and

bars, to one of the hottest pool decks in town. is a publicly traded company that primarily

operates through wholly owned subsidiaries including Leroy’s

Horse & Sports Place, Inc. (“CBS”),

AWI Manufacturing, Inc.

Leroy’s owns and operates more than 60

race/sports book outlets in the state of Nevada, CBS is the dominant

supplier of sports wagering hardware/software to the Nevada gaming

industry, and AWIM is a Nevada Gaming Commission-licensed

manufacturer/distributor and supplier of race/sports self-service

wagering kiosks. (“Leroy’s”),

Computerized Bookmaking Systems, Inc. For more information

call 1.866.LVHOOTS or visit www.hooterscasinohotel.com.

ABOUT HOOTERS CASINO HOTEL

The two orange iSports Stands, which display a photo of Michelle Nunes –

Miss Hooters International and a blackjack dealer at Hooters Casino

Hotel – are the first specially designed

kiosks in Las Vegas. maintains subsidiary

companies in the Caribbean Islands (ISI Caribbean & Maritime) as well as

the United Kingdom (ISI, UK). (“AWIM”),

and AWI Gaming, Inc

All Bets Are Off On ‘Survivor’

The winner is unknown until he or she is chosen in a vote by other contestants during a live broadcast.

By Lynn Elber

They wagered correctly on who would be the final two contestants in both the fourth and fifth editions of “Survivor,” Bradley said. Most offshore sportsbooks accept such alternative bets, said BoDog’s Bradley.

“Throughout the history of ‘Survivor,’ many have believed they knew the outcome of the show,” Ender said. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. For the current “Survivor,” the bets in question affected the odds for contestants Jenna Morasca of Pittsburgh, Pa., and Matthew Von Ertfelda of Washington, D.C.

He wasn’t aware of any other possible legal sanctions.

Betting on events other than sports or racing is banned in Las Vegas sportsbooks, a spokeswoman for the Nevada Gaming Control Board said Thursday. Asked if BoDog might consider legal action, he replied: “It’s not something we’d want to pursue, as a matter of precedent.”

© 2003 The Associated Press. The biggest payoff, $8,000, came on a $1,000 bet placed on the fifth “Survivor” at 8-to-1 odds.

The players’ current bets on “Survivor: Amazon” have been canceled and their money refunded, Bradley said. The suspicion is they had insider knowledge, he said.

Odds will be offered on the seventh “Survivor” but all bettors will be carefully monitored, BoDog President Rob Gillespie said in a statement.. All Rights Reserved. “Some have been right, many have been wrong.”

“We’re pretty sure this is the case,” Bradley said.

“Only ‘The X-Files’ has more conspiracy theories than ‘Survivor,’” CBS spokesman Chris Ender said. Bradley said that bets taken from those alleged to be with CBS skewed the odds significantly on “Survivor” contestants.

At least two players have been identified as CBS employees and other names may be connected to the network or may be aliases, Bradley said. One person was said by BoDog to work in a “production role” for CBS.

An online sportsbook said it has dropped betting on CBS’ “Survivor” after allegedly finding that network employees were wagering – and winning – on the hit reality show.

The Costa Rica-based BoDog.com found at least two CBS employees betting on the show’s outcome, said BoDog spokesman Lance Bradley. The players in question opened accounts with BoDog before “Survivor: Marquesas,” the fourth show, and bet only on the show and no other events.

The show narrows the field to two finalists in filmed competitions. He declined further comment on the allegations, or on any action CBS might take.

Callers to the Bodog.com offices were told that wagers were no longer being accepted on “Survivor.”

BoDog requires that bettors must not have knowledge of an event’s outcome

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Company Profile for Global Betting & Gaming Consultants

GBGC also provided the data on Internet gambling to lawyers representing

the government of Antigua in its case against the United States at the

WTO.

Head Of Research: Lorien Pilling

GBGC’s tracks market data, regulation and

industry news as it happens. The latest

review published October 2008 extends to over 1000 pages.

Private

 

Industry:

In addition GBGC could offer the added value of the knowledge of over

200 additional betting, gaming and lottery markets around the world and

would be able to instantly highlight any relevant comparators, etc. The company has work

with or supplied information to over 400 clients the majority of whom

are ‘blue chip’.

GBGC’s combination of operational and

financial experience combined with our gambling industry focus, our

extensive network of contacts and that fact that we are regarded as an

independent commentator on the industry means that we are able to

scratch the surface and get to the bottom of issues which can sometimes

be clouded by data alone.

Bartlett was advisor to The Government of Malta for two years and our

advice helped Malta establish itself as the leading off shore gambling

jurisdiction. As a result in this

instance we would be able to offer knowledge of the European, Australian

North & South American and Asian gambling markets.

+44(0)1624827138

Email:

Our client base ranges from leading financial institutions such as UBS

and Dresdner Kleinwort to William Hill plc

+44(0)1624827138

 

Type of Organization:

lorien@gbgc.com

COO: Mark Pilkington

Lorien Pilling

Phone:

GBGC’s personnel spend all of their time

looking at the gambling market. Bartlett has

an extensive track record in the gambling industry spanning some 40

years.

 

Public Relations

. We have advised the Government of Botswana on the

implementation of their new Gambling Act.

–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Global Betting and Gaming Consultants (GBGC) was established by its

Chief Executive and founder Warwick Bartlett during 1998. As a result they have a much more in

depth understanding of the key issues and the direction that market

 

Public Relations

Contact:

 

Headquarters Address:

CEO: Warwick Bartlett

In addition to its consultancy GBGC has produced four reviews of the

global gambling market that have been widely acknowledged to be the best

available both in terms of both their detail and accuracy. Consequently GBGC are the

most widely quoted source of industry data in share prospectuses and

analysts’ notes as well as on TV/Radio and in publications as diverse as

the Financial Times, Forbes, Time Magazine, BBC Radio 4, BBC Breakfast,

ITN news, the Economist and Fortune magazine.

2nd Floor , 8-10 Malew Street

Castletown, OTHER IM9 1AB

United Kingdom

 

Main Telephone:

Contact:

With an international focus GBGC are able to offer clients an additional

perspective gained from researching markets, working on projects and

attending/speaking at conferences around the world. GBGC

also keeps abreast of all the latest corporate news in the sector as the

company publishes the quarterly GBGC50 and iGBGC indices.

Company:

Warwick Bartlett

Phone:

 

Global Betting and Gaming Consultants

Projects have included market research/assessments, business/facility

planning, product evaluations, design/operational reviews, the

development/review of corporate strategies, license applications,

regulation development for and on behalf of governments, IPOs, M and A

and due diligence. This is monitored on a daily

basis with a newsfeed service being provided at www.gbgc.com.

warwick@gbgc.com

+44(0)1624827138

Email:

The statistics and forecasts that are contained within the Global

Gambling Report have become widely recognised, within the industry, the

financial community and the Media, as the industry standard for sizing

both the online and offline gambling markets. In addition to monitoring all of the

specialist industry press, both domestic and international, the company

also benefits from a daily electronic press cutting service that covers

more than 2,000 publications worldwide. Typically clients include, operators,

monopolies/lotteries, suppliers, investment banks, the major

consultancies, and governments.

Consulting

 

Key Executives:

GBGC has established itself as the most credible specialist

international gambling consultancy in the world

CNN – Gambling online? You bet!

Nonetheless, some experts think the case could be made to stick. They almost always include slots, blackjack and video poker, but many sites carry more exotic games, from baccarat to pai gow. Legislation tied to a particular technology may quickly become obsolete and require further amendment. Tony Cabot, an attorney specializing in gaming issues, says flatly, “When you see Kerry Packer get together with Microsoft, you have to believe there is a future for this type of wagering.”

It’s not because they operate in any fundamentally different way. In a highly publicized March 1998 “raid,” Mary Jo White, the U.S.

Second, legislation should be technology-neutral. Like the Communications Act passed in the 1930s, technology has now leapfrogged the law. (The company’s Indian casino and Web-development divisions make more.) “This is the really exciting point, because I know where it goes from here,” Speer said in an interview. attorney’s case involved the casinos’ sportsbooks. Even the firms that have enjoyed some stock-price popularity – such as Youbet.com – have shaky fundamentals. But as more and more traditional firms become involved, the consumer will look for the brand name. Almost all online gambling sites work the same. “And it is possible that records could be subpoenaed of various banks where these companies maintain accounts.”

But the growing acceptance of online betting and the Internet’s inherent ability to shatter jurisdictions bring the inconsistencies of American gaming law to a boil. Bets generally range from $1 to as much as $300.

Gambling is as at least as old as Christianity (that is, if Ben Hur can be trusted).

You might think that the prospect of competing against the likes of Microsoft would terrify a $20 million company like Inland. One of Microsoft (MSFT)’s less-publicized adventures is Ninemsn, an Australia-based Internet service to which Bill Gates has pledged tens of millions of dollars. Passed during the term of crime-fighter Attorney General Robert Kennedy, the law was intended to outlaw betting over telephone lines.

Take Interactive Gaming and Communications, another publicly traded company, located in Blue Bell, Pa. “We get daily reports, and you’ll see these people who spend a couple of hours gambling, and the total amount they bet is like $1.81,” says Thomas Holmes, Inland’s head of technology. The Wire Act obviously has no mention of wagering over the Internet. The Justice Department doesn’t think that online casinos (including those that offer gambling on sports events) can legally conduct business in the United States, even if they are based in places where gambling is legal. Together, these sites have about 4,300 registered customers in 96 countries around the world. . In the ’70s, Atlantic City legalized casino gambling; in the ensuing decades, state lotteries, Indian casinos, gaming ships, offtrack betting parlors and card clubs have sprouted across the landscape.

If such gamblers are not satisfied by options available to U.S. The Internet is presently unregulated and we support a federal law regulating Internet gambling.”

Internet Gambling Worldwide, Past and Future

First, legislation should treat physical activity and cyberactivity in the same way. At one point, Interactive Gaming looked like it could be an industry leader.

So how is it that these companies appear to operate legally, but a dozen Caribbean cowboys found themselves under felony indictment?

All the sites indicted by the U.S. FBI agents placed bets on games – uniformly National Football League matches, although many other options are available – and followed up, whether they won or lost. If, on the other hand, an activity is in the physical world – betting on horses, or casino betting with Indian tribes – it becomes subject to federal criminal sanction when it occurs in cyberspace. “The telephone is being used to facilitate these wagers and I believe the government has a solid case,” explains Tony Cabot, a Las Vegas-based gaming lawyer and author of a book on Internet gaming. And for sports bettors – who make up a majority of online gamblers, according to industry insiders – the ease of using cyberbookies can’t be beat. “Since there are no controls at present regarding Internet wagering, I would urge investors to shun these firms at present,” he says. college and professional sports.

Prosecutors focus on sports betting

Intriguingly, though, all the bets that make up the U.S. O’Brien observes in Bad Bet, his comprehensive account of America’s gambling industry, “Judging by dollars spent, gambling is now more popular in America than baseball, the movies and Disneyland combined.”

Is Microsoft betting too?

The potential action is too compelling for even the largest tech tycoons to resist.

But a hard-core base will continue to turn to Internet betting for its clear advantages. That figure exaggerates the size of the Internet gambling sector, since some companies operate more than one online betting parlor.

But even if Congress comes up with the best-crafted legislation in history, there are significant factors beyond its control.

The prosecutors’ focus on sports bets appears to stem from legal precedent in the law they relied on.

Finally, the DoJ believes that any federal law must recognize that the Internet is different from other communications media: It’s a multifaceted communications medium that allows for both point-to-point transmission between two parties (like the telephone), as well as the widespread dissemination of information to a vast audience (like a newspaper). Anyone over the age of 18 can set up an account with Centrebet and place money on a variety of worldwide sporting events, including U.S. That may suggest that, as some legal observers have argued, the 1961 federal Wire Act is too old and too loosely written to prohibit online gambling. “I wager on football games and usually bet in the neighborhood of $1,000 every weekend. If an activity is prohibited in the physical world but not on the Internet, the Internet becomes a safe haven for that criminal activity. His equal partner is Australian tycoon Kerry Packer of the Crown Casino in Victoria. In 1997, published reports put the total number of operating online casinos at 15. Would-be wagerers open an account with a credit card, although some sites also accept cash and cashier’s checks. The vast majority of customers will satisfy their demand for commercial gambling through less onerous and risky alternatives, such as lotteries, bingo, pari-mutuels and casinos.”

Similarly, the Las Vegas-based public company American Wagering, owner of Leroy’s Horse and Sports Place in Nevada, also operates a sports gambling site located in Canberra called MegaSports (www.megasports.com.au). Why should it be legal to bet online on a horse race in another state, but not legal to bet on a basketball game in one’s own state? If Native American tribes can establish new, legal, physical places where adults can gamble, why shouldn’t someone be able to do the same in cyberspace?

More than a year later, however, no cases have come to trial, and nine defendants have accepted plea bargains for state misdemeanor charges with no jail time. As Timothy L. He claims Inland’s Internet gambling business went slightly into the black in March, on annualized revenues of about $1 million. White’s hesitancy suggests that the law may not be as solid as she thought when she indicted. Says Sinclair of Christiansen/Cummings: “You are going to feel more comfortable wagering with a Hilton than you will with Joe’s Casino.”

The original version of Kyl’s bill failed most of these tests.

Although it uses a CryptoLogic template similar to several other online casinos, Kennyrogerscasino.com may be unique in letting bettors wager as little as a penny at a time. Kyl introduced a revised version earlier this year, removing some of the more onerous and hard-to-enforce provisions. But following a 1997 indictment, the state of Missouri settled a suit against the company and its president, Michael Simone, for about $35,000. Legislators have considered enlisting Internet service providers to patrol for undesirable sites, although Internet gambling insiders consider that proposal dead on arrival. Her higher-ups in the Justice Department appear to agree. The Standard obtained a Department of Justice analysis of the bill S. Justice believes that any legislation addressing criminal misuse of computers or computer systems (including the Internet) should have three vital characteristics. The defendants, many of whom live abroad, were threatened with up to five years in prison and $250,000 fines. In most cases, this means operating out of Australia. But the travails associated with fending off lawsuits have essentially put the company out of business. Says Opel, “Bringing in the big names and established companies only adds credibility and visibility to what we’re already doing.”

Is it legal?

A few hurdles have to be cleared before such ventures can take off – beginning with the federal government.

The amount spent on Internet gambling is harder to calculate. I’ve not had problems being paid.”

But over the last several months, at least some traditional casinos have pursued the time-honored strategy of joining an Internet gambling trend that they can’t beat. Failure to account for that specificity in legislation could stifle the Internet’s growth or chill its use as a communications tool. For decades, Vegas was about the only legal option for gamblers. Today, Americans spend some $600 billion a year on legal gambling, making it by far the favored national pastime.

That partnership leads many observers to believe that an online casino – using Microsoft platforms, of course – is in the works. 474, introduced into the Senate by Arizona’s John Kyl in 1997 as the Internet Gambling Prohibition Act. But they say the more bettors, the better. Nor would it prohibit online fantasy sports leagues, online lotteries in states where they are legal, or online betting on any live horse race where it would otherwise be lawful to wager.

One major barrier to profitability is the law. The minimum amount to begin an account varies. … “I use the service because it’s convenient and I have access to it when I want,” says one online gambler. Attorney White has proceeded slowly and quietly. “Federal legislation will make it difficult but not impossible for Internet gamblers in the U.S. In November 1998, for example, a division of Hilton Hotels acquired the company that runs Centrebet, a Web and telephone sports-wagering system based in Australia (www.centrebet.com.au). has had little cooperation from any other nation.

Running an online casino carries all the usual challenges of Internet businesses, from low click-through rates to servers that fail. For one thing, gambling from one’s home allows for a variety of techniques that would get one tossed out of a regular casino. Estimates range from $650 million to $1 billion a year, worldwide – a tiny fraction of the amount spent on more traditional formats. One Australian state, Queensland, is already awarding licenses for online gambling, and others may follow soon. Inland, for example, operates two Web sites in addition to the one bearing Kenny Rogers’ likeness: Casinoaustralia.com and Goodluckclub.com. A Ninemsn spokesperson says that the site does not now offer online gambling and would not comment on future plans. About 2,000 years later, Bugsy Siegel took the concept a step further and built the Flamingo Hotel in the desert town of Las Vegas. That makes for an Internet gambling environment too porous for U.S law enforcement to plug. “Think about what would happen to Wal-Mart (WMT), General Motors or Microsoft if these companies had to continue to dodge federal roadblocks to access their customers,” says Sebastian Sinclair, senior associate at Christiansen/Cummings Associates, a management consulting firm. In 1998, the Senate passed, by a large margin, an amendment prohibiting Internet gambling, but that bill died before becoming law. Today, a roster on one “gambling portal” site lists well over 200.

Does the seeming invincibility of online gambling make it an enticing business? Jason Ader of Bear Stearns, urges caution. Their case is based on the 1961 Wire Act.

The office of U.S. Even the precise number of online casinos is hard to calculate. In January, MegaSports began taking Internet bets from Australians; it expects soon to allow global gambling on sporting events. Blackjack players can very easily count cards, or even consult odds charts; the Kennyrogerscasino.com site actually has a printable chart showing the best strategy for every possible hand of blackjack. attorney for the Southern District of New York, indicted 14 managers of six Internet companies for offering gambling on their sites. (However, an HBO sports program attempted to locate one of these ventures in Aruba, and ultimately found that the genuine server was in a residential neighborhood in Bethlehem, Pa.) And the Caribbean nations would like to keep their haven status. The American Gaming Association, a trade group of gaming firms, maintains this view regarding online wagering: “The industry has been state-regulated and we think it should remain that way. According to an analysis by Sue Schieder of Rolling Good Times, the online gambling magazine, the new legislation would not punish the casual bettor. (The company did not respond to repeated requests for an interview.)

Group calls for regulation of Net gambling

For years, another barrier to the growth of Internet gambling has been strong opposition from those most threatened by gambling sites: legal American casinos. Casino games are available on a site or via downloadable software. attorney’s office theoretically operate out of the Caribbean. But according to Inland CEO Don Speer, elusive profits need not be one of them. Packer is a man with a voracious gambling appetite. citizens, it will be increasingly tempting for them to turn to locations abroad. “Ultimately, Internet gambling operators are selling a product. to gain access to offshore sites,” says Sebastian Sinclair of Christiansen/Cummings. Aruba, for one, is refusing to extradite any indicted individuals to the U.S., and thus far the U.S

A Business Opportunity For New Investors

Can you say the same for traditional investments in the stock market?

As a new investor, the world of online investing and trading might seem to be a hostile one at first. Whoever thought of that system, anyways?

Don’t let this incredible business opportunity pass you by – especially if you’re new to the world of online investing!

By: Desmond Jenkins

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

To learn more about how sports arbitrage can earn you the kind of online income that you’ve dreamed about, visit CSI Arbitrage today!. The generous income that both new and experienced investors see in sports arbitrage derives from the compounding rate of the trades.

Are you ready for the rundown on sports arbitrage? These investments are a low-risk, high yield operation because investors find price differences in the market, then use those differences to earn a substantial profit. Additionally, it’s important to note that sports arbitrage has always seen compounding rates between one to five percent, even during the market’s worst times. After all, you’re competing against professionals who trade for a living, which is enough of an intimidation factor. As the typical trade in sports arbitrage sees a compounding rate between one to five percent, this means that investors can quickly generate the kind of income that quickly outstrips their primary salary. The more capital an investor sinks into a trade, the more that trade then compounds. Add to the fact that you’ll have to constantly monitor your trades, and it’s enough to make any novice investor want to pull out his hair in frustration!

Yet there is an incredible business opportunity for new investors that will not only add a healthy bottom line to their portfolios – it’s relatively low-risk as well. Welcome to the world of sports arbitrage!

As icing on the cake, the yields from sports arbitrage are tax-free, so that healthy bottom line your portfolio is seeing won’t be penalized just because you’re good at what you do